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[1] Sikkim is also one of the least densely populated Indian states, with only 86 persons per square kilometre. [144] There is one Institute of National Importance,[145] one central university[146] and four private universities[147] in Sikkim offering higher education. The roads in southern Sikkim are in relatively good condition, landslides being less frequent in this region. Other languages include Dzongkha, Groma, Hindi, Majhi, Majhwar, Thulung, Tibetan, and Yakha. Brewing, distilling, tanning and watchmaking are the main industries and are mainly located in the southern regions of the state, primarily in the towns of Melli and Jorethang. Several festivals are celebrated in Gangtok and its adjoining areas. [135] Sikkim's most popular sports are football and cricket, although hang gliding and river rafting have grown popular as part of the tourism industry. Sikkim Festivals. On 8 December 2008, it was announced that Sikkim had become the first state in India to achieve 100 per cent sanitation coverage, becoming completely free of public defecation, thus attaining the status of "Nirmal State". [20] In historical Indian literature, Sikkim is known as Indrakil, the garden of the war god Indra.[21]. Chungthang, Dzongu, Kabi and Mangan are the subdivisions of the North district. Buddhism is followed by 27.4% of the population, while Christianity is followed by 9.9%. The predominant religions are Hinduism and Vajrayana Buddhism. Following Indian independence, Sikkim continued its protectorate status with the Union of India after 1947, and the Republic of India after 1950. [81][82] Sikkim produces more cardamom than any other Indian state and is home to the largest cultivated area of cardamom. Festivals of Sikkim . The closest major railway stations are Siliguri Junction and New Jalpaiguri in neighbouring West Bengal. [50] For the most part, the land is unfit for agriculture because of the rocky, precipitous slopes. Sikkim is the only State in India where most of the people have their origin from a different country i.e. Numerous snow-fed streams have carved out river valleys in the west and south of the state. Sikkim University began operating in 2008 at Yangang, which is situated about 28 kilometres (17 mi) from Singtam. Kangchenjunga , the most dominant mountain in Sikkim is worshiped for its unifying powers. Tihar Festival Sikkim One of the most popular and significant Hindu Festivals, Diwali is celebrated under the name of ‘Tihar’ in Sikkim and other parts of North East India. Pang Lhabsol. This ritual is one of the holiest in Sikkim. As of 2014, the Evangelical Presbyterian Church of Sikkim is the largest Christian denomination in Sikkim. The other major ethnic groups in Sikkim are Lepcha and Bhutia. According to the Constitution of India, Sikkim has a parliamentary system of representative democracy for its governance; universal suffrage is granted to state residents. August is the major month for the festivity at Tharpu in Western region of Sikkim. It enjoyed the highest literacy rate and per capita income among Himalayan states. Effigies of Durga are shown in Hindu-temples. Almost the entire state is hilly, with an elevation ranging from 280 metres (920 ft) in the south at border with West Bengal to 8,586 metres (28,169 ft) in northern peaks near Nepal and Tibet. In 2011, Sikkim's adult literacy rate was 82.2 per cent: 87.29 per cent for males and 76.43 per cent for females. of Sikkim ; Pictures from West-Sikkim; Pictures from North-Sikki The Chogyal Palden Thondup Namgyal asked India for help in quelling the movement, which was offered in the form of a small military police force and an Indian Dewan. The people of Sikkim celebrate scores of festivals with full gusto and fervor. The official languages of the state are English, Nepali, Sikkimese (Bhutia) and Lepcha. The Sikkim Herald is an official weekly publication of the government. The springs, which have a high sulphur content, are located near river banks; some are known to emit hydrogen. [73] [7]. [9], Modern Sikkim is a multiethnic and multilingual Indian state. Sikkim has the third-highest per capita alcoholism rate amongst all Indian states, behind Punjab and Haryana. Higher up are Eastern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows and high-altitude wetlands, which are home to a wide variety of rhododendrons and wildflowers. Phang Lhabsol is one of the most unique festivals of Sikkim, wad made renowned by ChakdorNamgyal, the 3rd ruler of Sikkim. Losoong falls on the 18th day of the 10th month, when farmers celebrate the harvest. Fog affects many parts of the state during winter and the monsoons, making transportation perilous.[61]. [72][73] The forested regions of the state exhibit a diverse range of fauna and flora. As a result, state revenue has increased 14 times since the mid-1990s. First, the 35th Amendment laid down a set of conditions that made Sikkim an "Associate State", a special designation not used by any other state. [133] Christmas has been promoted in Gangtok to attract tourists during the off-season. The airport is located about 124 km (77 mi) from Gangtok, and frequent buses connect the two. [67], Sikkim has four districts – East Sikkim, North Sikkim, South Sikkim and West Sikkim. [51] About a third of the state is heavily forested. [22] However the Limbus and the Magars also lived in the inaccessible parts of West and South districts as early as the Lepchas perhaps lived in the East and North districts. [80], Sikkim's nominal state gross domestic product (GDP) was estimated at US$1.57 billion in 2014 constituting the third-smallest GDP among India's 28 states. In lower elevations are found juniper, pine, firs, cypresses and rhododendrons from the Eastern Himalayan subalpine conifer forests. Sikkimese cuisine is the cuisine of the state of Sikkim, located in northeastern India. In 1975, the Prime Minister of Sikkim appealed to the Indian Parliament for Sikkim to become a state of India. A month later, the 36th Amendment repealed the 35th Amendment, and made Sikkim a full state, adding its name to the First Schedule of the Constitution. [69], Each of Sikkim's districts is overseen by a state government appointee, the district collector, who is in charge of the administration of the civilian areas of the district. Pang Lhabsol in this sense has become a … You can also enjoy the scenic view of Kanchenjunga while you dance to the tunes of folk songs during this festival. [55], The hills of Sikkim mainly consist of gneiss and schist[56] which weather to produce generally poor and shallow brown clay soils. The Chogyal of Sikkim became a titular ruler under the directive of the British governor as a result of the invasion. According to legend, Khye Bumsa, a 14th-century prince from the Minyak House in Kham in eastern Tibet, received a divine revelation instructing him to travel south to seek his fortunes. Ceremonies are held and the elders of the family apply “tika”-marks with red powder or died rice on the forehead of the young, blessing them. [121], According to the 2011 census, 57.8% follow Hinduism, making it the state's majority religion. Nestling in the Himalayan mountains, the state of Sikkim is characterised by mountainous terrain. Among the state's most notable hot springs are those at Phurchachu, Yumthang, Borang, Ralang, Taram-chu and Yumey Samdong. [72] [7] A relative of the Poinsettia, locally known as "Christmas Flower", can be found in abundance in the mountainous state. [120] The native Sikkimese consist of the Bhutias, who migrated from the Kham district of Tibet in the 14th century, and the Lepchas, who are believed to pre-date the Bhutias and are the oldest known inhabitants. [94][95] It has been constructed by the Airports Authority of India on 200 acres of land. [36] A standstill agreement was signed in February 1948. [118]English is also spoken and understood in most of Sikkim. 26.10. India is a land of festivals and Sikkim, being a part, doesn't stay behind. [107] In addition, the Ministry of Railways proposed plans in 2010 for railway lines linking Mirik in West Bengal to Namchi, Daramdin, Ranipool, and Gangtok. [75], Orchids, figs, laurel, bananas, sal trees and bamboo grow in the Himalayan subtropical broadleaf forests of the lower altitudes of Sikkim. [132], Sikkimese Muslims celebrate Eid ul-Fitr and Muharram. It also runs a host of distance education programs in diverse fields.[151]. [70], Sikkim is situated in an ecological hotspot of the lower Himalayas, one of only three among the ecoregions of India. In 1979, after a period of instability, a popular ministry headed by Nar Bahadur Bhandari, leader of the Sikkim Sangram Parishad Party, was sworn in. [59] The tundra-type region in the north is snowbound for four months every year, and the temperature drops below 0 °C (32 °F) almost every night. Of the approximately 1,438 butterfly species found in the Indian subcontinent, 695 have been recorded in Sikkim. This list may not reflect recent changes . Trade through the pass remains hampered by Sikkim's limited infrastructure and government restrictions in both India and China, though the volume of traded goods has been steadily increasing.[91][92]. Rice is a staple food, and fermented foods traditionally constitute a significant portion of the cuisine. Sikkim's climate ranges from sub-tropical in the south to tundra in the north. In the temperate elevations above 1,500 metres (4,900 ft) there are Eastern Himalayan broadleaf forests, where oaks, chestnuts, maples, birches, alders, and magnolias grow in large numbers, as well as Himalayan subtropical pine forests, dominated by Chir pine. The festival have been adapted from the traditions and rituals of the Tibetan New Year, Losar. [29] Treaties signed between Sikkim and Nepal resulted in the return of the territory annexed by the Nepalese in 1817. Sikkim lacks significant railway infrastructure. Sikkim is also known as the last Himalayan Shangri La, perhaps for its happy environment, monks and festivals. Internet cafés are well established in the district capitals, but broadband connectivity is not widely available. Sikkim (/ˈsɪkɪm/; Nepali: [ˈsikːim]) is a state in northeastern India. [26] In 1791, China sent troops to support Sikkim and defend Tibet against the Gorkha Kingdom. [10][11], Sikkim accounts for the largest share of cardamom production in India, and is the world's second largest producer of the spice after Guatemala. The government structure is organised into three branches: In 1975, after the abrogation of Sikkim's monarchy, the Indian National Congress gained a majority in the 1977 elections. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. Its neighbours are Bhutan to the east, Nepal to the west, the Tibet Autonomous Region of P.R.C. Sikkim (Nepali: सिक्किम, Sikkimi: དེན་ཇོནྒ) has been a state in India since 1975. In 1973, anti-royalist riots took place in front of the Chogyal's palace. Bhandari held on to power in the 1984 and 1989 elections. [111] However, the voltage remains unstable and voltage stabilisers are needed. During these festivals the people of Sikkim perform colorful dance and music. Source: importantindia.com, image: googleusercontent.com. [87][88] The Playwin lottery has been a notable success in the state. [40][unreliable source?] [54] In north-western Sikkim, the peaks are frozen year-round;[60] because of the high altitude, temperatures in the mountains can drop to as low as −40 °C (−40 °F) in winter. Some festivals in India symbolize the victory of good over evil and one such famous festival is Dussehra celebrated mostly in northern India. [74], Sikkim is home to around 5,000 species of flowering plants, 515 rare orchids, 60 primula species, 36 rhododendron species, 11 oak varieties, 23 bamboo varieties, 16 conifer species, 362 types of ferns and ferns allies, 8 tree ferns, and over 900 medicinal plants. The “festival of lights” covers the entire state in the veil of glittering lamps, offering people an opportunity to remove darkness not only from their homes but, also from their souls. This is an auspicious festival celebrated in Aritar district of Sikkim. These vibrant event is marked by unique … Khangchendzonga which is regarded as Sikkim’s guardian idol as well as Yabdu which is said to be the mountain’s top commander. [127] The traditional religions of the native Sikkimese account for much of the remainder of the population. [83], Because of its hilly terrain and poor transport infrastructure, Sikkim lacks a large-scale industrial base. In 1700, Sikkim was invaded by the Bhutanese with the help of the half-sister of the Chogyal, who had been denied the throne. This type of soil tends to support evergreen and deciduous forests. Sikkim constitutes mainly of three communities namely Lepcha, Bhutia and Nepali. [137], Beer, whiskey, rum and brandy are widely consumed in Sikkim,[138] as is tongba, a millet-based alcoholic beverage that is popular in Nepal and Darjeeling. Traditional local festivals, such as Maghe Sankranti, Sakela , Chasok Tangnam and Bhimsen Puja, are popular. Meanwhile, the Sikkim National Congress demanded fresh elections and greater representation for Nepalis in Sikkim. Sikkim is a state that shares its borders with Nepal, Tibet, Bhutan and West Bengal. [7] Sikkim's capital and largest city is Gangtok. Privately run bus, tourist taxi, and jeep services operate throughout Sikkim and also connect it to Siliguri. [84] Despite the state's minimal industrial infrastructure, Sikkim's economy has been among the fastest-growing in India since 2000; the state's GDP expanded by 89.93 percent in 2010 alone. The main service providers include Dish TV, Doordarshan and Nayuma. The party sent a plate of demands to the palace, including a demand for accession to India. Otherwise called Lampokhari Tourism Festival, Paryatan Mahotsav is a standout amongst the most looked for after fests in Sikkim that sees a footfall of thousands of voyagers consistently. It is organised by Saptak School of Music and takes place January first to the thirteenth every year, and is attended by hundreds of people. [37], Meanwhile, Indian independence and its move to democracy spurred a fledgling political movement in Sikkim, giving rise to the formation of Sikkim State Congress (SSC), a pro-accession political party. Pang Lhabsol a festival very unique to Sikkim, started by the third Chogyal (Holy King) of Sikkim . On this day Mt. [73], Sikkim also has a rich diversity of arthropods, many of which remain unstudied. [24] The Guru is reported to have blessed the land, introduced Buddhism, and foretold the era of monarchy that would arrive in Sikkim centuries later. Amongst the Sikkim important festivals is the Sonam Lhochhar Festival, also spelled as Sonam Lhosar. [99] A daily helicopter service run by the Sikkim Helicopter Service connects Gangtok to Bagdogra; the flight is thirty minutes long, operates only once a day, and can carry four people. This marks the beginning of the Tibetan New Year for the community. After the offering to gods the effigy of the demon King is burnt. Ethnic Groups of South Asia and the Pacific: An Encyclopedia By James Minahan, 2012, indiatoday.in/amp/education-today/gk-current-affairs/story/mini-sikkim-in-making-308081-2016-02-10, Kanchenjunga and Sikkim Press: How Media Started Its Practice in Sikkim, the third-smallest GDP among Indian states, Eastern Himalayan subalpine conifer forests, Eastern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows, third-smallest GDP among India's 28 states, List of institutions of higher education in Sikkim, National Institute of Electronics & Information Technology (NIELIT), Ministry of Electronics & Information Technology, "2011 Census reference tables – total population", "50th Report of the Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities in India", "Sikkim claims India's first mixed-criteria UNESCO World Heritage Site", "Why is Sikkim's merger with India being questioned by China? [110] By 2006, the state had achieved 100 per cent rural electrification. [47] The pass, which had previously been closed since the 1962 Sino-Indian War, was an offshoot of the ancient Silk Road. [108], Sikkim's roads are maintained by the Border Roads Organisation (BRO), an offshoot of the Indian Army. [39] In other respects, Sikkim retained administrative autonomy. [143] There are a total of 1,157 schools in the state, including 765 schools run by the state government, seven central government schools and 385 private schools. A part of the Eastern Himalaya, Sikkim is notable for its biodiversity, including alpine and subtropical climates, as well as being a host to Kangchenjunga, the highest peak in India and third highest on Earth. [12][13][14][15] It is also among India's most environmentally conscious states, having banned plastic water bottles "in any government functions and meetings" and polystyrene products (throughout the state). [106] In the second phase the line will be extended up to Gangtok. The Tibetan name for Sikkim is Denjong which primarily means the valley of rice. As a result, landslides are frequent, often isolating rural towns and villages from the major urban centres.[58]. Certain competitions are organized and merrymaking lasts for several days. During the monsoon, heavy rains increase the risk of landslides. The Buddhist festival of Bumchu is held in the Tashiding Gompa during January and also visit Dubdi Gompa. Ravongla, Jorethang, Namchi and Yangyang are the subdivisions of the South district. The festival have been adapted from the traditions and rituals of the Tibetan New Year, This page was last edited on 27 November 2020, at 16:35. Towns in southern and western Sikkim are connected to the hill stations of Kalimpong and Darjeeling in northern West Bengal. Saga Dawa : Saga Dawa is an amazing festival that is triple blessed. Sikkim festival Calendar 2020, month & date wise listing of Sikkim festivals, Sikkim Festival Date 2020, Sikkim Holiday Calendar 2020, Fairs an Festival calendar 2020in Sikkim, Sikkim festivals and holidays for the year 2020. Among the animals more commonly found in the alpine zone are yaks, mainly reared for their milk, meat, and as a beast of burden. The Nepalese attacked Sikkim, overrunning most of the region including the Terai. The state government has promoted biogas and solar power for cooking, but these have received a poor response and are used mostly for lighting purposes. [134], Western rock music and Indian pop have gained a wide following in Sikkim. This festival signifies the victory of good over evil. Christians in Sikkim are mostly descendants of Lepchas who were converted by British missionaries in the late 19th century, and constitute around 10 percent of the population. [79] These include the endangered Kaiser-i-hind, the Yellow Gorgon and the Bhutan Glory. [86] Power is also obtained from the National Thermal Power Corporation and Power Grid Corporation of India. Nepali-language newspapers, as well as some English newspapers, are locally printed, whereas Hindi and English newspapers are printed in Siliguri. "Modernizing a Traditional Administrative System: Sikkim 1890–1973", Autonomous administrative divisions of India, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Sikkim&oldid=991732328, States and territories established in 1975, Former British colonies and protectorates in Asia, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia pending changes protected pages, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, All Wikipedia articles written in Indian English, Pages using infobox settlement with possible motto list, Pages using infobox place symbols with unknown parameters, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2014, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2017, Articles lacking reliable references from July 2017, Pages using multiple image with auto scaled images, Articles with Encyclopædia Britannica links, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz area identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. ATTC is situated at Bardang, Singtam, and CCCT at Chisopani, Namchi. Sikkim is a state of India situated in the northeast of India. Forbes, Andrew; Henley, David (2011). [27], Following the beginning of British rule in neighbouring India, Sikkim allied with Britain against their common adversary, Nepal. [34], Prior to Indian independence, Jawaharlal Nehru, as the Vice President of the Executive Council, pushed through a resolution in the Indian Constituent Assembly to the effect that Sikkim and Bhutan, as Himalayan states, were not 'Indian states' and their future should be negotiated separately. [38], The demand for responsible government continued and the SSC launched a civil disobedience movement. Sikkim's Nepalese majority celebrate all major Hindu festivals, including Tihar (Diwali) and Dashain (Dashera). This festival is considered as one of the holiest Buddhist festival for the Mahayana Buddhists. In addition, a small mining industry exists in Sikkim extracting minerals such as copper, dolomite, talc, graphite, quartzite, coal, zinc, and lead. Every year during the summer i.e. As per the Buddhist calendar, the Sikkim festivals are celebrated with a lot of pomp and show throughout all these festivals the citizens of Sikkim indulge in vibrant and with its lively dances and music. The public-private funded institution is the Sikkim Manipal University of Technological Sciences, which offers higher education in engineering, medicine and management. [139], In 1957, a Nepali monthly magazine Kanchenjunga was the first news outlet for the masses in Sikkim. "A part of the holy water is distributed amongst the gathering of devotes and the pot is replenished with river water and sealed at the end of the festival to be opened only in the during next Bumchu festival." [128][129] The traditional religion of the Lepcha people is Mun, an animist practice which coexists with Buddhism and Christianity.[130]. [131] Losar, Saga Dawa, Lhabab Duechen, Drupka Teshi and Bhumchu are among the Buddhist festivals celebrated in Sikkim. Sikkim's economy is largely dependent on agriculture and tourism. [8], The Kingdom of Sikkim was founded by the Namgyal dynasty in the 17th century. Sikkim receives most of its electricity from 19 hydroelectric power stations. According to the Vikram Samvat calendar, the festival begins with Kaag (crow) Tihar on Trayodashi of Kartik Krishna Paksha (the 13th day of the waning moon) and ends with Bhai (brother) Tika on Dwitiya of Kartik Sukla Paksha every year. [ 152 ] many students, however, ties between Sikkim and also connect it to Siliguri is! Corridor near Bangladesh, including Tihar ( Diwali ) and Dashain ( Dashera ). [ 61 ] name... 17 mi ) from Gangtok, and the Indian Army has control over Sikkim 9. 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